1842 - William James, American Philosopher and Psychologist, leader of philosophical movement of pragmatism and psychological movement of functionalism, older brother of writer Henry James and diarist Alice James. He was the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States. James was a leading thinker of the late nineteenth century, one of the most influential U.S. philosophers, and has been labelled the "Father of American psychology." (William James and the Sick Soul, uploaded by Academy of Ideas. Accessed January 11, 2019.)
1856 - Christian Sinding, Norwegian Composer and Teacher, best known for his lyrical work for piano, Frühlingsrauschen (Rustle of Spring, 1896). He was often compared to Edvard Grieg and regarded as his successor. (Christian Sinding - Symphony No. 3 in F-major, Op.121 (1919), uploaded by KuhlauDilfeng2. Accessed January 11, 2019.)
1872 - George Washington Pierce, American Inventor and Pioneer of radio telephony
1895 - Laurens Hammond, Engineer and Founder of the electronic keyboard instrument company that bears his name.
1930 - Rod Taylor, Actor
1960 - Stanley Tucci, Actor
1904 - Mozart's The Magic Flute (German: Die Zauberflöte) is first performed at Metropolitan Opera, New York.
1908 - A prominent young lawyer, Mohandas Gandhi (Mahatma, meaning "great soul"), is hailed in Johannesburg, South Africa, for refusing to register as an Asian.
1922 - Frederick Banting and Charles Best first use insulin to treat diabetes in a human patient.
1928 - The novelist and poet Thomas Hardy, best known for Tess of the d'Urbervilles, Far From the Madding Crowd, and The Return of the Native, among many other works, dies. His family disagree over what to do with his body. Eventually, his heart is removed and buried all on its own in Stinsford in Dorset. The rest is cremated and the ashes taken to Poets' corner in Westminster Abbey.
1935 - Amelia Earhart is the first woman to fly solo from Hawaii to California.
1974 - The Rosenkowitz sextuplets (3 boys and 3 girls), are born in Cape town, south Africa, and become the first known set of sextuplets to survive their infancy.
1992 - Paul Simon is the first major recording artist to tour South Africa after the end of the apartheid era's cultural boycott.
1. Asiado, Tel. The World's Movers and Shapers. New Hampshire: Ore Mountain Publishing House (2005)
2. Chambers Biographical Dictionary, 19th Ed. London: Chambers Harrap, 2011
3. Dateline. Sydney: Millennium House, (2006)
4. Grun, Bernard. The Timetables of History, New 3rd Revised Ed. Simon & Schuster/Touchstone (1991)